Breed Type: Terrier
Country of Origin: England
Size:  Small
Also known as : Jack Russell, JRT
Height: 25-38cm
Exercise Requirements: High
Care Requirements: Low
Lifespan: 13-15 years
Best Suited as: Family Pet

The Jack Russell terrier is another popular breed in Australia, probably because it’s small size means they’re cheap and easy to keep their large personalities, intelligence, and liveliness make them very fun dogs to keep.
Appearance

The Jack Russell terrier is a small bit sturdily built terrier. They moved with a quick alert action ever watchful for movement. They walk on the front of their pads at all times. They are a well-proportioned dog in terms of height to length. They have a flattish skull of moderate width which narrows from the back to the eyes.  They have a definite defined stop the pointed muzzle, the length of the muzzle being slightly less than half the overall head length. The nose is black and for a small dog their jaws are powerful.

They have warm and shaped eyes which are always alert and which emanate intelligence. There is a drop in V shaped though only the tips of the use drop.  Their bite can be level or sister though this is a bite is preferable. They have a muscular neck with a gradual widening to strong shoulders typical of terriers.

Their backs and chests are almost parallel such as the shyness of the chest and the straightness of their back.  There are athletically built in contrast to the heavily built Staffordshire terrier.

The coat comes in straight as well is rough or broken coated. They must be predominantly white at least 51% white that is with markings of 10 black or brown. There is no such thing as a teacup Jack Russell terrier or brindled – these are crossbreds are not Jack Russell terriers.

They are about both well recognised and mis-recognised breeds of dogs in that almost any small predominantly white terrier like dog in Australia is referred to as the Jack Russell.

History
The Jack Russell terrier was developed somewhere around the middle of the 19th century as a small game hunting dogs used to flush quarry or even attacks quarry such as red foxes, rats and badgers from underground lairs.  They were bred to their small size, tenacity, bravery and digging strengths.  The shallow chested flat backed conformation enabled them to travel down burrows that would have prevented a deep chested dog entry.

With small game hunting now greatly reduced in popularity and even illegal in many countries the Jack Russell likely has found favour as a family pets where there intelligence, agility desire to play hunt provides great entertainment to their masters.

Exercise Requirements
There are small but high activity dogs and required daily vigourous physical activity. The activity should not be repetitive so that their minds are stimulated as well.

Any game that simulates hunting such as chasing a ball or frisbee will bring them much pleasure. Beware encouraged them to dig to try and find a rat as they may persist in this endeavour it far beyond what you had wish them to.

They are a big dog in a small body and when exercising off lead to strong hunting instincts can get them into trouble. Jack Russell terriers have been known to face off against much larger dogs with predictable consequences to ensure before exercising exercising them off lead you have given them obedience training and they know to come when called so you can avoid them being involved in unnecessary battles.

Many owners compete them in agility, obedience and conformation shows.  There is nothing more spectacular in the canine world than seeing an eager JRT tear up an agility track – their enthusiasm for it is legendary.  You can set up your own course in the back yard and combine their training with exercise.

Temperament
Definitely a big personality in a small body, your Jack Russell terrier will seek to run the show.  They will dictate when they should be played with an exercise if given the chance and will also dictate what this exercise entails.  It is most important to socialise them when young and to assert yourself as the Alpha dog in the pack.

Training any terrier is difficult and this is certainly the case with Jack Russell’s regardless that they are intelligent, the problem is their hunting instincts are so strong that they can develop selective hearing were given instructions to calm if their mind is selling them to trace, Hunt, dig, fight, find or explore.

They are generally well-behaved and good with children but are unlikely to tolerate children who are rough or cruel.

Remember they are a working bred terrier and their instincts require them to be busy, have a life of purpose and to seek out ways to please their masters. Giving them nothing to do is torturous for them and will result in a unhappy and depressed Jack Russell that is destructive.

Health
Generally a healthy breed they do have some proneness to kneecap dislocation a range of inherited eye diseases, deafness and hip dysplasia.

In Australia there is  great deal of cross breeding of jack Russell terriers and as a result most people identify any small, predominantly white terrier as being a jack Russell. To ensure you are actually getting one, only purchase a Jack Russell terrier from a registered breeder and ensure you expect the breeding stock and you documents relating to the health of the breeding stock before choosing a puppy.

Suitability as  Pet
Jack Russell’s suit active families are individuals able to give them the mental and physical exercise that such intelligent and high energy dogs need.  They will do well in either an apartment or a house, as long as they are exercised every day.
They are not great with other pets as they will seek to be the boss of any cat, and will see rodents as prey.

They are however, good fun, healthy and generally low cost and low maintenance dogs.